Saturday, March 16, 2013

Investigatory Project "SOLARIOS" for physics

Chapter I:


Introduction
        At this point of time, in this age of technology and futurity, we tend to keep on using products, materials and inventions which come from non-renewable sources-----sources such as oil, petroleum, fuel, natural gas, etc. For example, in cooking, we need heat to cook the food, and to have that heat, we need a tank of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). But the problem is, LPG comes from a non-renewable source, therefore, there’ll be a point of time that these non-renewable sources will someday become scarce to a point that it will totally be depleted and will no more be available for future needs. That is the reason why our group came up to an idea of making a cooking equipment which will not need natural gas or LPG for heat and for cooking. That is the Solarios, a solar cooker. All we need is the energy from the sun and some other tools for this great product to be of great use, work, and help.

Statement of the Problem


1.      Can Solarios be an alternative cooking equipment of food other than stoves which need LPG in order to cook?
2.      Can Solarios cook enough amount of food in a given enough amount of time?
3.      How can Solarios utilize solar heat and where can it be obtained for cooking food?

Hypotheses

1.      If we incorporate different kinds of materials that have certain uses specifically in the way of cooking then    we can combine them and be able to produce such a product that can match up with other common cooking equipment such as the stove, then the solar cooker can be an alternative equipment for cooking food.
2.      If we position properly the solar cooker which is direct to the sunlight and efficiently heated by the heat, then we will be able to cook any food properly.
3.      If we use natural factors such as the sunlight in being able to cook food then we will be able to use it as an alternative heat. 

Scope and Limitation

           Our group’s investigative project focuses on how to build a solar cooker. This project will tackle only on the right materials, procedures, and systematic ways showing and letting everyone know that using solar energy against gas, charcoal, and electricity is a better choice. This is a very timely solution for problems linked to practices of cooking with firewood and gas such as increase in deforestation, amount of time, cost, fire hazards, and respiratory health issues due to the inhalation of smoke in closed proximities. Our study is also only limited to advantages and possibilities of using this innovative project in our country which is known to be tropical by nature. This will further teach students the process and involvement of science and technology on natural resources such as, that solar energy may be used for commercial purposes. We tend to convey that by using free solar energy, cooking will be safe, healthy, bring less harm to our environment and will be a better alternative solution for environmental problems of developing countries like our very own Philippines. But basically, because in every day there is night, its use for night times and rainy days isn’t applicable since the main source of heat we use in our product is the heat coming from the sun which only appears on day times and sunny seasons. And also our product is only the prototype therefore it can only cook basic foods such as hotdogs, eggs, etc. But it can also be used for boiling water.

Significance of the Study
     Our study/product has a very important contribution to our society and to its people. It lets us create equipment which can be used especially in times when the gas used for cooking is insufficient. This study helps us create alternative cooking equipment using a renewable source which is very useful to many people. It gives solution to those who gets problematic when they cook at the middle of the day and had their LPG left out with nothing and would try all their efforts to use and to light and fan the charcoals just to cook food, but with Solarios, it’s just a matter of putting the food inside the cooker and letting it be heated by the sun and have the lid at a specific angle. Also, when in cooking, people would not anymore worry about their expenses in buying these LPG tanks which in the Philppines, cost a lot right now because what they only need is the sun and the raw food they are about to cook.

Laws in Physics

OPTICS

Principle: It is a branch of Physics that deals with the study of light, its properties, its interaction with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Usually, this branch of Physics describes the behaviour of different kinds of light such as visible, ultraviolet, infrared light and etc.

Application: In this particular project of ours, the branch of Physics is applied on the part of the light coming from the sun with the method of refracting and reflecting it to utilize its use for the progress of the purpose of the project, or simply, using the light to cook food.

THERMODYNAMICS

Principle: A branch of Physics that deals with the study of transfer of heat and of work done on or by different bodies of radiation and its effects on material bodies and on radiation in regions of space.

Application: Thermodynamics is applied in/through the process of the transformation of radiant/solar energy, coming basically from the sun, to heat energy so that the food can be cooked by this process. This is one of the most important processes because by this, we will be able to prove the feasibility and productivity rate of our project.

ENERGY CONVERSION

Principle: A process in energies present in matter wherein the energy present is transformed from one form into another.

Application: In this project, from the sunlight where there is light energy, it is converted into heat energy when it gets reflected into/inside the solar cooker and then turned into mechanical energy as it cooks the food inside the cooker.


 Chapter II:

Methodology


 1)Two cardboard boxes, with the inner box being at least 10 inch x 10 inch (38 cm x 38 cm), but bigger is better. The outer box should be larger all around, but it doesn't matter how much bigger, as long as there is a half inch (1.5cm) or more of an airspace between the two boxes. The distance between the two boxes does not have to be equal all the way around. Also, remember that it's easy to adjust the size of a cardboard box by cutting and gluing it. 


2.)    One cardboard sheet for the lid
3.)    One roll of aluminum foil. 
4.)    One can of "non-toxic when dry" flat-black spray paint.
5.)    At least 1 cup of white glue
6.)    Glass cover
7.)    Sharp Knife

8.)    Wood CasĪµ 


9.)    Mirror/(s)


10.) Magnifying Glass
Procedures

1.) Fold the top flaps closed on the outer box and set the inner box inside the outer box and place it at the center of the outer box.
2.) Decide how deep you want your oven to be. Ideally, it should be about 1 inch (2.5 cm) deeper than your largest pot and about 1" shorter than the outer box so that there will be a space between the bottoms of the two boxes once the cooker is assembled. 
3.) Using a knife, slit the flaps of the inner box down to the height of the outer box whenever the inner box is higher than the outer box.
4.) Glue aluminum foil on the inside of the inner box. Place a stand in the inner box as to lift the cooking pan just below the glass cover. The more the food is exposed to the sunlight the faster the cooking process.
 5.) Take the large sheet of cardboard and lay it on top of the outer box. Glue it to one edge of the outer box making sure that as you close it, the cover is covering the whole outer box.
 6.) To make a prop bend a 12” (30cm) piece of hanger wire as indicated. This can then be inserted into the corrugations as shown. 

7.) Next, turn the lid upside-down and glue the aluminum foil and the mirror on it to serve as light reflector to the solar cooker. This is one of the  most important procedure because this is where the gathering of light happens.

8.) Use a wood case as a protection for the whole box and put the magnifying glass on top of the glass cover whenever cooking food.

Note: Recommendation, Data Analysis, Data and Results, and Review of Related Literature was   
purposely remove from this post.
For Questions ask: Wilfredo Collado III

           SOLARIOS  by: Adula, Sheila,  Mizuhata, Sachiko, Serapio, Arthur, Manahan, Clarisse,  
               Tinga, Patricia, Ayap, Christian, Collado, Wilfredo III   


Saturday, March 17, 2012

Forms of Energy

Energy: is the capacity of a physical system to perform work.The SI unit of energy is the joule (J) or newton-meter (N * m).

The law of conversion of energy:
It states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed from one form to another


Kinetic Energy:
exist whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity 
 KE = MV^2 / 2
the greater the mass/velocity of an object the more kinetic energy it has

Potential Energy:
exist whenever an object which the mass has a position within a force
 PE = (m)(g)(h)

Radiant Energy:
is the energy of electromagnetic waves, uses photovoltaic panels and light, also known as "Electromagnetic Energy"

Examples: Radio waves, Microwaves, X-rays


Chemical Energy:
is the energy used in the bonds of atoms and molecules
TNT (Chemical Explosive Trinitrotoluene)

Example: Petroleum, Coal, Propane


Electrical Energy:
energy made available by the flow of electric charge,
formed by the movement of electrons

Examples: Lightning, Static Electricity


Nuclear Energy:
energy stored in the nucleus of an atom

Examples: Atomic Bomb, Nuclear power-plants


Thermal Energy:
internal energy in substances, created through movement of atoms

Examples: Boiling Water, Burning Wood

Sound Energy:
movement of the molecule in the air that produces vibration

Examples: Alarms, Music, Ultrasound

Mechanical Energy:
movement of machine parts, total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system

Examples: Wind-up toys, Pogo sticks, Grandfather clocks
                                               Magnetic Energy:
attraction of objects made of iron

Examples: Compass, Magnets, Refrigirators



Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Investigatory Project (Pineapple Peelings to Vinegar)

Introduction

A. Background of the Study

A Pineapple, is a fruit wherein you have to peel off the peelings to eat it, like any other fruits. The researchers chose this as their project to prove that Pineapple peelings have other uses. The researchers also noticed that the families in our country are very practical nowadays. Instead of throwing the peelings away, many families can earn something from it by using our experiment. They can produce a product and maybe start a business or they can produce it for their own use. The researchers wanted to prove that nothing in this world is useless and peelings count as useful materials too, and can somehow help people to use their creative minds to make things possible out of such wastes.

B. Statement of the Problem

Our country is experiencing economic crisis and many Filipinos do not have stable jobs. Our problem in waste management also has a huge impact on why the researchers chose this study to begin with. The wastes in market says it all.

C. Objectives

-To collect most of the peelings from Pineapple vendors and turn it into a vinegar that can be used in cooking or can be the start of a business.
-To teach the vendors how to make vinegar out of peelings so that they can earn extra income.

D. Significance of the Study

The researchers find this study significant in a way that it can be a key to help families earn extra income if the process is performed well. With this study, people will be able to make their own vinegar and save enough money from buying vinegar every now and then.

E. Scope and Delimitation

This study was delimited to the preparation and implementation in a way that we only used specific fruit peelings. Namely the Pineapple peelings, we do not have any back up peelings for our study purposes.
This study was also delimited to evaluation because it was confined to the responses of the student and the teachers.
This study covers the use of Pineapple peelings that can be useful in both livelihood and environment-friendly aspects.

Methodology

A. Materials and Equipments

Pineapple Peelings which can be found in markets and from stall vendors.
- Sugar                                                 - Bottles
- Strainer                                              - Yeast
- Water                                                 - Knife

B. Treatment

1. Wash the peelings thoroughly.
2. Cut into cubes; transfer into a casserole and add enough water to cover.
3. Let it boil.
4. Strain and let cool to lukewarm.
5. Prepare all the needed containers.
6. For every four cups of juice, add 1 cup of sugar and 1/4 teaspoon yeast
7. Leave small amount of peelings into the juice
8. Fill into the bottles and ferment, do not disturb.
9. After a week, remove the peelings and add the vinegar starter.
10. Ferment for another week.
11. After 3 weeks, the product is available

Results and Discussions

A.  Findings

After many trials and errors, our product became a vinegar. The scent of pineapple was still present and the taste was very similar to the vinegar that can be sold from the market.
The researchers used two models to represent the study. The first one contains Pineapple Peelings and the other one does not have. The duration of the Fermentation process was exactly the same. In both models, the researchers added vinegar starter to make it more appealing to the smell and at the same time convincing. At the first week, the yeast started to settle at the bottom. The researchers did not mind it because it is part of the experimentation.

B. Analysis of Data

The researchers observed that Pineapple peelings can be made into a vinegar. The researchers' objectives were pointed out and was implemented. The vinegar that is made from the extract of pineapple peeling can now be used as a substitute for the commercialized vinegar we often use.

References:

Note: other parts of were purposely removed on this post, this is only to serve as a guideline

for Questions ask : Neth Mijares 
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